Lead author Dr. Nita Forouhi, of the Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, and colleagues report their findings in the journal BMC Medicine.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, including stroke, heart attack, and heart disease.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, killing around 610,000 people annually. Heart attack affects around 735,000 Americans each year, while around 800,000 people are affected by stroke.
Adopting a healthy diet is considered key for reducing the risk of CVD, and numerous studies have suggested the Mediterranean diet fits the bill.
A study published in the European Heart Journal earlier this year, for example, found older adults who adhered to the Mediterranean diet were at lower risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death than those who followed a Western diet.
The Mediterranean diet is typically high in plant-based foods - such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts - and low in red meats and unhealthy fats. It also incorporates regular consumption of fish and poultry, and red wine is acceptable in moderation.
For their study, Dr. Forouhi and team set out to investigate how adhering to a Mediterranean diet affects the risk of developing CVD, as well as what proportion of CVD cases and deaths might be prevented in the U.K. as a result of adherence to the diet.
CVD risk up to 16 percent lower with the Mediterranean diet
The team analyzed data from 23,902 healthy adults who were a part of the EPIC-Norfolk Study - a multi-center cohort study of more than 30,000 British adults that mainly looks at the link between diet, lifestyle, and cancer.
As part of the study, participants completed food frequency questionnaires, which the researchers analyzed to determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet. They did so using a 15-point score based on guidelines from the Mediterranean Diet Foundation.
Over an average follow-up period of 12-17 years, the researchers identified 7,606 new cases of CVD among the participants, as well as 1,714 CVD deaths.
Compared with participants with low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the researchers found that subjects with higher adherence to the diet were 6-16 percent less likely to develop CVD.
Applying their results to the U.K. population, the team estimated that if healthy Britons adhered to the Mediterranean diet, around 3.9 percent of new-onset CVD cases and 12.5 percent of CVD deaths could be prevented.
"If our findings are broadly representative of the overall U.K. population, then we can assume that higher level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet could have significant impact in lowering the cardiovascular disease burden in the U.K.," notes Dr. Forouhi.
What is the difference between a cold and flu?
Symptoms of flu
People with flu normally feel very unwell for two or three days, and will continue to experience symptoms for around another five days. After that, you may feel tired and run down for a further two or three weeks.
The most common symptoms of flu are:
• a sudden fever (above 38°C or 100.4°F)
• runny or stuffy nose
• aching muscles
• dry cough
• sore throat
Symptoms of a cold
Symptoms of a cold can include:
• runny or blocked nose
• sore throat
Most people recover effectively from flu by resting at home, although you should see your GP if you:
• are aged 65 or over
• are pregnant
• have heart disease, diabetes, asthma, lung disease or another long-term medical condition
• have a weakened immune system
• have a very high fever, together with abdominal or chest pain or an unusually severe headache
If none of these apply to you, your body should recover from flu of its own accord. You should get lots of rest, stay warm, and drink plenty of water. You can treat the symptoms of flu by taking:
• paracetamol to lower your fever
• ibuprofen for muscle aches
• cough syrup if you have a cough
• a decongestant if you have a blocked nose
Treating a cold
Resting and taking care of yourself are usually enough to cure a cold. You should:
• drink plenty of fluids
• rest your body
• eat healthily
You can treat the symptoms of a cold to help you feel better, but this will not make you recover sooner.
• take cough syrup or throat lozenges
• take painkillers such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or aspirin
• gargle salt water, which may help ease a sore throat and nasal congestion
• take decongestants to help with a blocked nose. These can either be taken orally or as a spray in your nose.
Chronic pain is a major health care challenge. Approximately 20% of the world’s population has an on-going pain problem, many of whom are poorly served with currently available treatment modalities. Because pain affects the elderly disproportionally, it is becoming an increasingly important and expensive problem in our aging population. The growing use of neurotoxic drugs to treat cancer and infectious diseases, and the recognition of sexual dimorphism in both pain mechanisms and the clinical presentation of pain syndromes further emphasize the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of acute and chronic pain, so that improved therapies can be offered to patients.
The second Challenge of Chronic Pain conference will discuss recent discoveries and current challenges in pain research, with a focus on translating basic research insights into new therapies. Advances in our understanding of peripheral and central pain mechanisms, pathways and processes will be highlighted. We will explore the clinical landscape of chronic pain and pain syndromes, the innovative approaches in target validation in animal and human studies, and their translation into novel therapeutic interventions.
This meeting is aimed at scientists, clinicians, and those working in industry or on translational research, interested in understanding chronic pain and improving the process from mechanism to therapy.
most people know that white bread is a diet don’t: One of the easiest swaps you can make for a major health boost is ditching refined flour in favor of whole wheat. But it’s not just that loaf of Wonder Bread that you need to watch out for. The basket of rolls delivered to the table when dining out, the French baguette you grab on your way home to accompany dinner, your Saturday-morning bagel ritual, and Friday pizza night all come with a side of less-than-desirable health risks. Here are five unpleasant reasons to nix the bread basket:
Little nutritional value. Yes, food is delicious, but at the end of the day we are eating for one reason: to nourish our bodies. And white bread made with refined flour fails to accomplish this goal. “When a grain is refined, such as in the making of flour for white bread, the outermost and innermost layers of the grain are removed. This removes the fiber and some (25 percent) protein, leaving behind the starch,” says Erin Palinski-Wade, RD, author of Belly Fat Diet For Dummies. You may see "enriched flour" on the label. While this flour has had some nutrients like B vitamins and iron added back in after the refining process, it’s still lower in fiber and protein than whole-wheat flour. Opting for whole-grain varieties carries with it a dose of healthy fiber and more protein, adding a nutritional boost to meals.
Erratic blood-sugar levels. “Since it's low in the fiber and protein that helps to slow digestion, white bread is digested and absorbed rapidly. This leads to blood sugar's rising quickly,” says Palinski-Wade. This spike — and subsequent crash — in blood sugar not only leads to irritability, but will leave you headed to the vending machine for a pick-me-up.
Increased risk of type-2 diabetes. “When blood sugar elevates rapidly, excess insulin is released into the bloodstream to push the sugar into the cell,” says Palinski-Wade. “When this occurs on a regular basis, cells become more insulin resistant, making it harder over time to control blood-glucose (sugar) levels. Research published in 2010 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition supports this, finding that people who consumed several servings of whole grains per day — and limited intake of refined grains — had less of a type of fat that increases risk of type 2 diabetes.
Weight gain. After eating refined carbohydrates like white bread, the surplus of sugar in your bloodstream — unless immediately utilized for activity — tends to be stored as fat in the body. Plus, the blood-sugar crash will leave you hungry soon after ingesting, so you'll be reaching for another snack. “Rapid digestion can increase hunger and cravings, leading to a lack of satiety after eating, which may result in increased caloric intake at the end of the day,” says Palinski-Wade.
Brown Bread Calories and Nutrition per Serving (1 Serving=1 Med Slice/34g)
- Green Tea
Make green tea your drink of choice to quench that thirst, satisfy your minimum daily fluid intake while at the same time burning those calories. Green tea contains the anti-oxidant EGCG which works to burn calories throughout the whole day.
Also keep in mind the added benefit of green tea replacing those drinks laden with sugars and the host of other health benefits such as the anti cancer and cholesterol maintenance properties.
- Whole grain bread
The fibre content of wholegrain bread is high along with the nutritional benefits of the seeds within. Wholegrain toast makes for a satisfying and low GI breakfast and wholegrain bread is excellent for sandwiches or as the side carbohydrate for a meal like soup.
Important to note is that brown bread does not mean whole grain. Some brown bread can contain colourings to achieve its brown appearance.
It is packed with good fats which are conducive to weight loss. It is super easy to prepare and a cost effective, satisfying meal with a plate of vegetables and brown rice for example. A steak of salmon can be covered in a bowl and cooked in the microwave for 2-3 minutes. Try the condiment Chermoula if you can get your hands on it. Delicious!
- Garlic and Onions
Yes we know, garlic and onions are two foods not one. We will bunch them together because of their ease of use and common combination and addition to foods.
Minerals and oils inside garlic and onions help to break down fat and increase the metabolism.
Onions and/or garlic can be utilized in every meal.
If you can appreciate the green flavour of broccoli you have yourself a low calorie, zero fat vegetable that can accompany any meal. Broccoli boasts a great deal of fibre and a host of other health benefits in your daily diet. It is a great accompaniment in almost any meal and filling.
Berries are high in nutrients including antioxidants. When you buy them frozen their freshness is locked in and they can be kept for some time and used in a variety of ways. In summer thaw a few berries in your mouth. Just like ice cubes, only tastier. Add them to your oatmeal, cereal, low fat ice cream or yoghurt.
- Lean Chicken
Versatile, tasty, filling and high in protein. Chicken can be used in a variety of dishes for lunch and dinner.
It is high in protein, great as a part of breakfast, dessert and a tasty snack. Low fat yoghurt is a great way to get your daily dose of dairy and can be transformed into a delicious meal with the addition of fruits or cereal.
- Brown Rice
Once you go brown you’ll never want to go back to white. It has substance and is covered in fibre. The nutty taste and texture of brown rice goes beautifully with your meats (such as lean chicken) and vegetables and is very filling.
Be sure to drink plenty of water when you have something as fibre rich in your diet as brown rice.
Not just rich in Fibre, the high vitamin C content of oranges is conducive to fat burning. Vitamin C promotes the production of Carnitine in the body which oxidizes fatty acids (breaks them down/burns fat).
Preferably eat your oranges fresh rather then in supplement form or juice. The fruit is highest in fiber and a filling and sweet satisfying end to meals.
"Physicians worldwide, regardless of their nationality, strive to do what is best for their patients. The objective of the Salzburg Medical Seminars is to help physicians achieve their goals by providing free, state-of-the-art information and education in a neutral, non-threatening environment."
The OMI - Salzburg Medical Seminars (the Salzburg-Weill Cornell Seminars, the Salzburg-CHOP Seminars for Pediatrics, the Salzburg-Cleveland Seminars, the Salzburg-Duke Seminar and the Salzburg-Columbia Seminars) link physicians from leading American hospitals and their affiliated medical schools with physicians practicing in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the former Soviet Union and other countries in transition.
Under the auspices of The American Austrian Foundation, the seminars are funded by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy and The Open Society Foundations, as well as corporate and individual donors.
From 1993 - 2004, the seminars took place at Schloss Leopoldskron, home of the Salzburg Seminars, an American foundation established in 1946 after World War II. From June 2005, the seminars were held at the newly renovated facility Schloss Arenberg, which was almost completely destroyed by fire in April 2009. During the reconstruction of Schloss Arenberg, seminars were held at Hotel Castellani in Salzburg. In April 2010 the Schloss Arenberg was newly renovated again.
Joint 55th Research and Innovations Medical Conference 2017
London England, UK
28–31 July 2017
Advances in Medical Research and Innovations in the New World.
Innovations and reforms in medicine and medical practice are global issues. This is due to advances in medical practice and education, and advent of new technology, which is widely available in society internationally in the past three decades. As a result, patients and society in general are becoming more informed about their own health and medical practice, and they are using their knowledge to question and challenge doctors and healthcare workers about their own health issues. In addition, people are now living longer in various communities as result of advances in medicine and medical technologies.
There is now enormous need and expectations from society for doctors and healthcare workers to keep abreast of all these new advances. This has resulted in the changing roles of doctors and healthcare workers in society. They are not only called upon to provide state of the art medical practice fit for the 21st century, but they are also expected to take part in teaching and research in order for them to maintain the challenges they face in medical practice and education in the 21st century. Hence the IAES Conference in Research and Innovations in Medicine and Healthcare will look at these challenges and advances in order to provide excellent medical care fit for the new millennium.
The Provisional Programme for the event can be seen below.