Diseases (3)

Friday, 30 December 2016 17:54

Hold Campgain My Doctor Pharmacist

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What is the difference between a cold and flu?

Symptoms of flu

People with flu normally feel very unwell for two or three days, and will continue to experience symptoms for around another five days. After that, you may feel tired and run down for a further two or three weeks.

The most common symptoms of flu are:

•  a sudden fever (above 38°C or 100.4°F)

•  headache

•  chills

•  runny or stuffy nose

•  tiredness

•  aching muscles

•  dry cough

•  sore throat

Symptoms of a cold

Symptoms of a cold can include:

•  runny or blocked nose

•  sneezing

•  sore throat

•  cough


Treating flu

Most people recover effectively from flu by resting at home, although you should see your GP if you:

•  are aged 65 or over

•  are pregnant

•  have heart disease, diabetes, asthma, lung disease or another long-term medical condition

•  have a weakened immune system

•  have a very high fever, together with abdominal or chest pain or an unusually severe headache

If none of these apply to you, your body should recover from flu of its own accord. You should get lots of rest, stay warm, and drink plenty of water. You can treat the symptoms of flu by taking:

•  paracetamol to lower your fever

•  ibuprofen for muscle aches

•  cough syrup if you have a cough

•  a decongestant if you have a blocked nose

Treating a cold

Resting and taking care of yourself are usually enough to cure a cold. You should:

•  drink plenty of fluids

•  rest your body

•  eat healthily

You can treat the symptoms of a cold to help you feel better, but this will not make you recover sooner.

You could:

•  take cough syrup or throat lozenges

•  take painkillers such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or aspirin

•  gargle salt water, which may help ease a sore throat and nasal congestion

•  take decongestants to help with a blocked nose. These can either be taken orally or as a spray in your nose.

Friday, 30 December 2016 17:28


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Risk factors for primary hypertension

Age – particularly SBP


●Family history – about twice as common in subjects who have one or two hypertensive parents

●Race –more common, be more severe, occur earlier in life, and with greater target-organ damage in blacks

●Reduced nephron number –may be related to genetic factors, intrauterine developmental disturbance (eg, hypoxia, drugs, nutritional deficiency), premature birth, and postnatal environment (eg, malnutrition, infections)

Major Causes of Secondary Hypertension

• OCPs, (higher doses of estrogen)

• NSAIDs, (chronic use)

• Antidepressants, (TCAs and SSRIs)

• CSs

• Decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine

•Weight loss medications: Anorexiants, Appetite suppressants (including ephedra, caffeine, Mahuang).

• Erythropoietin

• Cyclosporin

• Stimulants, including methylphenidate and amphetamines

Friday, 30 December 2016 17:25


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¢ Usually a diastolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg with evidence of acute end-organ damage.

¢ life threatening, arequires immediate treatment, parenteral medications.

¢ Unwise to lower the blood pressure too quickly or too much, as ischemic damage can occur in vascular beds.

¢ Mean arterial pressure (MAP) should be reduced by about 10 to 20 percent in the 1st hour and then gradually during the next 23 hours so that the final pressure is reduced by approximately 25 percent compared with baseline.